Tag Archives: Garlock

Pump Packing for Abrasive Materials

Abrasive media comes in many forms—from mining slurries to wood pulp and even substances as seemingly mild as liquid chocolate. This diversity rules out a one-size-fits-all solution for abrasive pumping applications. However, today’s broad range of materials, from carbon fiber packing to graphite-filled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bushings, includes products capable of meeting an equally broad range of abrasive wear requirements.

Carbon Fiber Packing

Few materials offer the abrasive resistance and heat dissipation of carbon fiber yarns. Braided compression packing made from this material excels under extreme conditions, including exposure to a variety of chemicals, temperatures approaching 850 F (454 C) in oxygen-rich atmospheres (up to 1,200 F/649 C in steam) and shaft speeds in excess of 4,000 feet per minute (fpm).

The strength of carbon fiber yarns combined with their ability to draw heat from pump shafts make them the material of choice for resisting abrasive wear. Unfortunately, they do not seal as well as graphite foil packing. Upon closer examination, however, the speed and temperature capabilities of these two materials are similar.

Consider this hypothetical scenario: An abrasive pumping application is under control using carbon fiber, except for excessive leakage across the packing set. Depending on the nature of the leaking media, it may not be desirable to have it pooling on the plant floor. Even if it is just water, excessive leaking media is lost profit. If the leakage is clean, the carbon fiber packing is effectively excluding abrasives.

Carbon Fiber Rings and Foil Packing

When dealing with clean media, graphite foil packing becomes an option. At a subsequent repacking, it may be advisable to use just two carbon fiber rings in the bottom of the stuffing box and use graphite foil packing for the remaining rings. Continue reading Pump Packing for Abrasive Materials

Garlock Style 215 Helps Steel Products Manufacturer

Garlock Style 215 Helps Steel Products Manufacturer With Harsh Acids

picture of garlock style 215 expansion jointGarlock Style 215 Expansion Joints are PTFE concentric spool-type flexible couplings that are designed to reduce noise and compensate for expansion, contraction, and minor piping misalignment in chemical processing, air conditioning, and heating systems.

The complete assembly includes a fluorocarbon resin PTFE body, electroless nickle-plated ductile iron flanges, polyethylene-covered restriction zinc plated bolts, and stainless steel corrosion-resistant reinforcing rings.

Case Study

INDUSTRY

Primary Metals

CUSTOMER

South American manufacturer of flat and long steel products

BACKGROUND

Construction of two new facilities including a hot rolling mill.

CHALLENGES FACED

The plant was in need of expansion joints that could handle chemicals on their pickling lines. Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals. A solution called pickle liquor, which contains strong acids, is used to remove the surface impurities. It is commonly used to clean steel in various steel making processes. The line required an expansion joint with a PTFE tube to handle the pickle liquor which included hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, but a very short overall length for installation.

Continue reading Garlock Style 215 Helps Steel Products Manufacturer

How Do I Prevent Galvanic Corrosion In My Packing Gland?

Galvanic corrosion is an electrochemical process that occurs between two dissimilar metals, or between a metal and a conductive non-metallic material, when both are exposed to an electrically conductive media. In the case of a packing gland, it occurs between a metal component and the carbon or graphite packing. Under these conditions, the material that is closest to the anodic end of the galvanic scale will be corroded in preference to the one that is closest to the cathodic end of the scale. (See Table 1.) As the distance between materials on the galvanic scale increases, a corresponding rise occurs in the rate and the extent of the corrosion.

picture of galvanic series table 1

In a valve or a pump using packing made of either graphite or carbon, a galvanic reaction may be initiated as soon as any electrically conductive fluid, such as water, is introduced. Since graphite is more cathodic than the metals that make up valves and pumps, it is the metal that may be subject to corrosive attack.

Liquid Phase Needed

Even though a valve or pump may be packed with a graphite or carbon packing, many cases exist in which the metal parts will not be subjected to galvanic corrosion. For example, an electrically conductive fluid in a liquid state must be present for the galvanic reaction to take place. The temperature of a superheated steam valve prevents the accumulation of any significant amount of water, thereby nullifying the possibility of galvanic corrosion.

Stainless Steels

Another example of when galvanic corrosion protection may not be necessary is when the equipment is constructed of austenitic stainless steels (e.g., 300 series, 630, etc.). These stainless steels are much more resistant to galvanic attack.

On the other hand, the martensitic stainless steels (e.g., 400 series) are highly susceptible to galvanic attack. If a valve or pump is constructed of martensitic stainless steel and if it will be exposed to an electrically conductive fluid for any period of time, then consideration should be given to incorporating a galvanic corrosion inhibitor system into the carbon or graphite packing sets used to seal it.

When Are Corrosion Inhibitors Needed?

Continue reading How Do I Prevent Galvanic Corrosion In My Packing Gland?

Gaskets Designed to Take the Heat

Under pressure? Absolutely. The increasingly high temperatures and harsh conditions to which gaskets are exposed makes selecting the right gasket all the more important.


In industries such as chemical processing, hydrocarbon refining, and power generation, leakage from extreme temperature process  streams can result in loss of efficiency and production as well as adverse environmental impacts and compromised employee safety. One of the most commonly used sealing products in systems subject to high pressures and temperatures is a spiral-wound gasket. These gaskets typically consist of filler and winding materials selected on the basis of application requirements and end-user preference. Proper selection of these materials is critical to achieving the desired performance in all applications.

Material Selection

Sealing at temperatures above 850 ºF (454 ºC) is particularly challenging because of the limited number of filler materials that can resist thermal degradation at extreme temperatures – these temperatures affect both the sealing material and metal components. For instance, the yield strength of fasteners decreases as the temperature is increased. In addition certain chemicals can become more volatile and aggressive in high-temperature reaction processes.

The two most common filler materials in spiral-wound gaskets are graphite (can withstand temperatures up to 850 ºF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; tolerance up to 500 ºF). Other filler materials are used mainly for their thermal insulating properties, not for sealability; these include mica, exfoliated mica, and ceramics. While graphite and PTFE perform satisfactorily in terms of temperature and chemical resistance, they have limitations. Graphite is not compatible with heavily oxidizing media at any temperature, nor can it withstand continuous operating temperatures above 850 ºF. Beyond 850 ºF, volume loss through oxidation becomes excessive and sealing effectiveness is compromised.

Many high-temperature systems, such as exhaust manifolds and flanged piping connections in exhaust systems, are oxidizing. Other services are oxidizing because of the operating temperature and media involved. Continue reading Gaskets Designed to Take the Heat

Garlock’s New Isolation Gasket: The Future of Flange Isolation

The Garlock Family of Companies has launched a new fully-coated isolation gasket known as EVOLUTION.

picture of garlock evolution isolation gasket

EVOLUTION® Isolation Gaskets

The next generation of isolation gaskets, EVOLUTION®, features easier installation, tight sealing, high-temperature operation, no permeation, hydrotesting isolation, fire-safety and chemical-resistance.

Featuring a thinner, 1/8-inch design, EVOLUTION minimizes the difficulties encountered when attempting to install thicker isolating gaskets. The full-coating encapsulation allows the gasket to be hydrotested and left in the pipeline with the same isolation properties as before it was tested.

EVOLUTION’s coating is highly resistant to abrasion and impact while providing chemical resistance to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and other chemicals often found in oil and gas pipelines. This fully encapsulated coating also prevents the need for expensive exotic cores, as it eliminates contact to exposed metal. Continue reading Garlock’s New Isolation Gasket: The Future of Flange Isolation

Curing Chronic Pipe Leakage

How the raised surface profile of PTFE sheet gasket helped a midstream oil and gas processor address leaky pipes

Bolted flange-gasket connections in process piping systems are common and given little thought – unless they start to leak.

Chronic leakage proved to be an issue for one of Garlock’s clients, a midstream oil and gas processor and services provider. The site processes, stores, and transports natural gas, liquefied natural gas and petroleum products. Garlock was brought in to provide a solution to the problem.

Successful connections are dependent on a variety of things, including the state of the flange surfaces, alignment, bolt and nut grade and strength, bolt and nut thread condition, lubrication, bolt tightening process, service conditions, and choice of gasket.

When a flange-gasket joint is assembled, the gasket must first be compressed to fill the gaps between the flange surfaces, creating a seal when system pressure is applied. Secondly, it must maintain that seal as the system is brought on-line and temperature and pressure escalate.

As the temperature increases, a gasket made of non-metallic materials such as rubber, fibre, PTFE and inorganic fillers is prone to lose thickness, that is, creep. And the thicker the gasket is, the
more it is prone to creep (1/8-inch thick gaskets creep more than 1/16-inch).

The two most important performance qualities of a gasket are its ability to seal and its ability maintain that seal. These can be indicated by industry standard tests for sealability and creep.

On the surface, this particular case study would seem to be an application of little complexity. However, the details of the joint gave rise to several issues that caused the user chronic leakage problems. Here are the service conditions and background of this particular case:

  • Temperature: 100°F to 120°F (38°C to 49°C)
  • Flanges and use: 18-inch Class 150 raised face flanges used in the pipe systems of cooling tower water pumps. Multiple gaskets are on either side of spool piece
  • Media: Water
  • Pressure: 100 psig to 150 psig (7 bar-g to 10.3 bar-g)

Continue reading Curing Chronic Pipe Leakage

Case Study: Water Treatment Style 206 Expansion Joint

picture of style 206 expansion jointFacility Issue:

In a brine concentrator, an original competitor’s expansion joint failed upon start up.

Industry:

Water Treatment

Background of the Facility:

This facility is a Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) power plant. Water is initially pumped from a well, pre-treated, used as process water, then reclaimed and retreated with a Brine Concentrator for use in their cooling towers. No city water is used and no waste water is disposed of from the site.

Brine concentrators use thermal energy to evaporate water, which is subsequently condensed and discharged as clean distilled water.

Brine Concentrators are also used in water treatment facilities in desalination plants, mining operations and well drilling operations in the oil & gas industry.

  1. Size: 24 “x 10” FF
  2. Temperature: 221° F
  3. Media: Brine Slurry
  4. Pressure: 30 psi

Observation:

The original expansion joint unfortunately failed catastrophically without warning on start up. After consultation with the OEM of the Brine Concentrator, the recommendation was that only Garlock Expansion Joints be used for this aggressive application. The original expansion joints were replaced with Style 206 expansion joints which are built with a 4 to 1 safety factor.

Value Proposition:

Upon start up, Garlock Style 206 expansion joints offered superior performance, reliability and service life. This in turn improved plant safety, increased the mechanical integrity of equipment, and allowed Garlock’s customer to gain a competitive advantage in the market place.


The original article was featured on Garlock’s website and can be found here.

Gallagher Fluid Seals is an authorized distributor of Garlock gaskets, packing, expansion joints, and more.

For more information, contact Gallagher Fluid Seals today.

 

GYLON EPIX 3504 Helps Chemical Manufacturer

GYLON EPIX™ - 3504 EPXGYLON EPIX® is a family of gaskets that effectively seals a broader range of applications and is more forgiving during the installation process.  It allows the end user to save valuable turn-around time, reduce re-work, and lower costs, helping them to finish ahead of schedule and under budget.

GYLON EPIX® features a hexagonal surface profile that provides the torque retention and blowout resistance of a thin gasket and the conformability of a thicker gasket.  GYLON EPIX Style 3504 is a high performance, aluminosilicate microsphere filled PTFE sheet material designed for use in moderate concentrations of acids, and caustics, as well as hydrocarbons, refrigerants, and more.


picture of chemical plantINDUSTRY

Chemical

CUSTOMER

Chemical Manufacturer and Distributor

BACKGROUND

Loading stations are very critical in the chemical industry as flanges are disassembled and reassembled everyday.

CHALLENGES FACED

Due to the dangerous media being transported through the flanges there is a high risk of incidents and human harm, making it necessary for the gaskets to only be used once. For this reason the customer was looking to evaluate a solution that was more adaptable than the current gaskets being used.

OPERATING CONDITIONS

  • Temperature – Ambient outdoor temperature
  • Application – Flange connections at the load/unload station (4 stations). Flanges EN1092-1 Type 01, PN10-40, 316 TI stainless steel
  • Media – Sulfuric Acid (Oleum) with a concentration of 94%
  • Pressure – 2 bar/29 psig

SOLUTION AND BENEFITS

GYLON EPIX 3504 PTFE gasket with Aluminosilicate Microspheres is specifically designed for use in applications where many acids and caustics are present, making it the ideal solution in the loading stations. GYLON EPIX 3504 performed exceptionally during the 110 day evaulation allowing the customer to continue use with confidence.


The original case study can be found on Garlock’s website.

Gallagher is your source for all of your Garlock sealing needs.  If you have further questions regarding the GYLON EPIX™ 3504 EPX, or any other Garlock products, please do not hesitate to contact us. Our engineering department is always ready to help you design a sealing solution to your toughest application!

Case Study: Style 204 Expansion Joint w/ GUARDIAN® FEP Liner – Paper Mill

Garlock Style 204 Rubber Expansion Joint

picture of style 204The Style 204 family of spool-type expansion joints are manufactured with the industry standard narrow arch design. This style is intended to be used in dynamic conditions where both pressure and vacuum concerns are present.

Features and Benefits

  • Fully laboratory and field tested for long life and exceptional reliability
  • High pressure and vacuum resistance offer increased safety and ensure suitability for a wide range of applications
  • Single and multi-arch designs are available for a range of movement capabilities
  • Concentric and eccentric reducing configurations can be provided to join piping of unequal diameters
  • Available in a variety of elastomers and fabric combinations to meet the varied demands of temperature, pressure, and media

picture of paper mill

INDUSTRY

Pulp and Paper

CUSTOMER

Large South Eastern Paper Mill

BACKGROUND

A U.S. paper mill experienced multiple failures of expansion joints on the knotter screen pumps in the fiber area of the plant. The failures caused significant downtime and posed a safety hazard to employees working in the area.

OPERATING CONDITIONS

  • Size- 24”ID (DN600)
  • Temperature- Less than 250°F (120°C)
  • Application- Knotter screen feed pump
  • Media- Black liquor with wood fiber
  • Pressure- Less than 65 psi (4.5bar)

CHALLENGES FACED

A field survey determined that the expansion joints were experiencing significant elongation during installation. It was also evident that the pump and pipe flanges were not in parallel, creating angular misalignment. Additionally, the expansion joints were handling an aggressive media of black liquor and wood fibers, which collectively contributed to the failure.

SOLUTION AND BENEFITS

Through on-site troubleshooting and surveying of the expansion joints, engineers were able to recommend and design an adapter plate for the pump flanges to realign the pump to the piping. This allowed the plant to standardize the replacement expansion joints to Style 204 with GUARDIAN® FEP liner to be used in multiple locations. In addition, the mechanical bond of the GUARDIAN® FEP liner provided greater reliability than the adhesive bond of competitive PTFE lined expansion joints. Replacement cost and frequency has been significantly reduced as a result of this engineered solution.


The original case study can be found on Garlock’s website here.

Gallagher Fluid Seals is an authorized distributor of Garlock. For questions about products or to learn more about rubber expansion joints, contact our engineering department.

Next Level PTFE Performance for Sanitary Applications

Bacteria accumulation can ruin product and put consumer health at risk.

Bacteria accumulation is a serious issue in the food manufacturing industry – it can ruin product and put consumer health at risk.

While many know that Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is an excellent choice for use in diaphragms and gaskets, most do not realize that there exist varying grades of PTFE. Some lower cost PTFE offerings may contain an excessive volume of pores within their structure which can harbor organic contaminants such as bacteria.

To address this problem, a calendared manufacturing process is used. Calendared PTFE is a premium grade PTFE designed for use in aseptic applications requiring ultra-high purity standards. It is ideal for use in food, pharmaceuticals and a variety of clean markets.

picture of molded diaphragm
Molded Diaphragm made from calendared PTFE

Distinguished by an extremely low void content, calendared PTFE resists permeation and the accumulation of foreign matter, reducing the risk of harboring unwanted bacteria or residual media.

To achieve this, the unique manufacturing process orients the chains of PTFE in a lattice-like structure that reduces voids in the material and provides it with biaxial strength. This unique structure also delivers a very high flex life. When tested in an MIT Folding Endurance Tester, the flex life of calendared PTFE is four-times greater than conventional PTFE materials.

Unlike the skived process that is commonly used for PTFE manufacturing, the calendaring process produces uniform sheets of material with consistent physical properties. This gives calendared PTFE a renowned reputation for predictable performance and quality. The opposite is true for skived PTFE where variable properties lead to varying performance and reliability.

Continue reading Next Level PTFE Performance for Sanitary Applications