Tag Archives: FFKM

Kalrez® O-rings for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal

Kalrez Perfluoroelastomer Seals: Authorized DistributorAmine treatment is a process typically used for Hydrogen Sulfide removal from natural gas (sour gas). This operation is commonly referred to as gas “sweetening,” acid gas removal, or amine scrubbing

Amine units are used all over the world in oil refineries and gas plants to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from a product stream. New environmental standards are more strict and require ever-decreasing contents of H2S in clean natural gas. Most of the new sources of oil and gas discovered today have high contents of H2S which demand more efficient removal technologies (the Shah Gas field in the United Arab Emirates for example has up to 30%  H2S).

The Challenge of Amine Units in Harsh Chemical Environments

Amine units operate under harsh chemical environments. H2S for example, needs to be handled with care and can cause embrittlement of metal equipment. These processes also operate at high temperature where perfluoroelastomer sealing components are required. Amines, however, are known to be aggressive to many FFKMs. When elastomers are in contact with amines, they tend to swell to a high degree, which results in a loss of mechanical properties and extrusion. This can lead to leakage, rupture of the fluid film in mechanical seals due to face seal deformation, and an increase in torque needed to operate.

Solution: Kalrez 6380 for Lower Swell Properties

kalrez spectrum o-rings

DuPont™ Kalrez® Spectrum™ 6380 perfluoroelastomer parts offer outstanding resistance to amines because it exhibits four times lower swell over general purpose perfluoroelastomer (FFKM) offerings.

The use of DuPont™ Kalrez  Spectrum™ 6380 parts in these applications may extend the MTBR (Mean Time Between Repairs) of valves and pump mechanical seals and reduce leakage which can help contribute to reduce maintenance costs and lower emissions. The latest Kalrez 0090 parts represent another option for this application when high pressure resistance is needed. The following graph compares the chemical resistance of Kalrez Spectrum™ 6380 to other sealing materials when exposed to a typical amine/water mixture used in gas sweetening units.

picture of volume swell FFKM


Gallagher Fluid Seals is an authorized distributor and partner of Dupont Kalrez®. For more information or if you have a project / application where you need assistance, contact us today.

The original article was written by staff at Dupont and can be found here.

Kalrez® Spectrum™ 7275 Doubles Seal Life

Kalrez Spectrum 7275 is a perfluoroelastomer that provides long life sealing in an array of aggressive chemical environments that typically make sealing difficult: ethylene oxide, acrylic monomers, silanes and chlorosilanes, and strong oxidizers such as nitric acid, chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

It has demonstrated improved chemical and compression set resistance and mechanical property retention when compared to competitor’s elastomers.

Kalrez Spectrum 7275 is based on a proprietary cross-linking system, and is uniquely identified by its light brown shade.

Targeted applications include industries that depend on mechanical seals, pumps, valves, compressors, filtration columns and analytical equipment for their critical processes.


Success Story: Kalrez® Spectrum™ 7275 Double Seal Life in Chlorine Dioxide Service

Chlorine dioxide is a strong oxidizing gas that finds many uses as bleaching agent and disinfectant, being a more effective and safer biocide than other sources of chlorine. Most of the production of chlorine dioxide is used at paper mills for pulp bleaching.

picture of paper mill

A North American based paper mill had to perform frequent repairs in a pump handling chlorine dioxide in water. According to the reliability engineer, the incumbent non-black FFKM typically failed within 5 months of installation because of the extremely aggressive nature of the stream. With replacement of the seals by Kalrez® 7275, the pump seal life was extended to more than 12 months, removing the pump from the “bad actors” list and into a regular yearly maintenance.

Kalrez® Spectrum 7275, a specialty non-black perfluoroelastomer product, is made with a DuPont patented crosslinking system, and is suggested for seal applications where high resistance to oxidizing and reactive media is required.

picture of spectrum 7275 graph


The original article can be found on Dupont’s website here.

Gallagher Fluid Seals is a long-time partner of DuPont™, predominantly focusing on the Kalrez® line of products. For more information about Kalrez®, or a quote, contact Gallagher Fluid Seals today.

Kalrez PV8070 Parts in Reactors

High Performance Seals for Polycrystalline Silicon Process Equipment

The Challenge

To meet growing demand in solar cells, the Siemens* process is used to produce highly purified polycrystalline silicon by thermally decomposing tri-chloro-silane (TCS). The reactors employed require three kinds of high-performance seals in the following locations: A) bell jar seals; B) electrode seals between the electrode and ceramic inlet; and C) a gasket for the view port seal (see schematic).

pv8070 seals in Polycrystalline Silicon Process Equipment

Application Details

The process involves a very hot, dry environment with temperatures up to 1200°C (2100°F). Sealing components see up to 300°C (572°F). Process media include TCS and aggressive by-products of its decomposition, such as HCl gas. Superior compression set performance is needed for effective sealing and extended seal life. Very low outgassing is a key requirement for preventing contamination of the process environment.

The presence of harsh chemicals in high temperature conditions often require an upgrade from standard sealing materials to PTFE or fluoroelastomers (FKM) to improve thermal stability and chemical resistance. However, PTFE can deform and creep “hot flow” in the bell jar seal increasing the risk of product loss. FKM, with its high temperature rating of 200°C (392°F), also has deficiencies in this 300°C (572°F) environment.

The Solution and Key Advantages of Kalrez PV8070

Kalrez PV8070 perfluoroelastomer parts installed as washers and gaskets in reactors for the Siemens CVD process have demonstrated outstanding performance in this demanding application. Kalrez® PV8070 parts are effective seals that provide: Continue reading Kalrez PV8070 Parts in Reactors

Kalrez® 1050LF General Purpose FFKM

kalrez 1050LFDuPont™ Kalrez® 1050LF perfluoroelastomer parts are a carbon black-filled general-purpose product for o-rings, seals, and other parts used in chemical process industries. It is a classic-grade and longtime favorite for premium performance and provides a more economical option than similar compounds such as 7375.

Kalrez 1050LF o-rings can maintain their recovery with elasticity following high-pressure applications, maintaining a tighter seal for longer periods of time compared to other compounds. With a pressure rating of 1,500 PSI, it can help extend seal life and integrity, ultimately lowering costs.

With above-average hot water and steam resistance, the maximum application temperature for 1050LF is approximately 550°F (up to 288°C). This compound is also known for its excellent amine resistance and compression set properties. It has a Shore A durometer of 82.

In addition, Kalrez 1050LF has excellent chemical resistance, with the ability to withstand contact of over 1,800 different chemicals, plasmas, and solvents.

In particular, this compound stands out for wet applications in semiconductor manufacturing – stripping and copper plating, which include:

  • Door/lid seals
  • Drain seals
  • Seals for chemical containers
  • Fittings
  • Seals for filters/connectors
  • Flow meters

This reliable compound from DuPont is classified as a general usage product. It is not recommended for use in organic or inorganic acids as high temperatures and is not recommended for applications that require rapid temperature cycling properties.


For more information about Kalrez 1050LF, or to see if it is a good fit for your application, contact Gallagher Fluid Seals today.

Gallagher Fluid Seals is an authorized distributor for DuPont™ Kalrez®.

Semiconductor Fabs Lower Cost of Ownership with HiFluor Materials

Article re-posted with permission from Parker Hannifin Sealing & Shielding Team.

Original content can be found on Parker’s Website and was written by Nathaniel Reis, Applications Engineer for Parker O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division.


parker hifluor processIn our semiconductor entry from last month, we noted that lowering the cost of ownership is a multi-faceted goal. We discussed how one of the areas for potential improvement is mechanical design and how the Parker EZ-Lok seal is a major solution to mechanical seal failure. In this entry, we’ll investigate a notably different type of cost-reduction opportunity – material selection – and see how Parker’s innovative HiFluor compounds can reduce seal costs to as little as half.

Critical Environments

When it comes to the seal industry, the semiconductor market is well known as one where the most premium, chemical-resistant compounds are a necessity. Microelectronic manufacturing processes involve chemistries that push the limits of what elastomeric compounds can withstand in terms of both chemical aggressiveness and variety. The perfluorinated materials (FFKM) capable of withstanding these environments require intricate manufacturing processes regulated by closely-guarded trade secrets and the significant investment of resources.

These factors drive the price of FFKM compounds to the point of being as much as 50 times the cost of any other variety. Cutting just a slice out of this cost can result in significant savings – a chance to take out a quarter or even half the pie would be advantageous to the overall bottom line. Fabricators should be continually on the lookout for more cost-effective compounds that show equal performance in their pertinent operations.

hifluor compound pictureThis is why Parker’s HiFluor compounds offer an opportunity for cost savings that shouldn’t go unnoticed. A unique hybrid of performance between FFKM and the simpler technology of fluorocarbon (FKM) elastomers, HiFluor offers the most superb chemical compatibility in the many semiconductor environments where the high temperature ratings of FFKM aren’t necessary – and at a fraction of the cost.

Not only can HiFluor be used where even FKM is lacking, but its performance in applications with aggressive plasma exposure is spectacular as well. This can be observed by its overall resistance to plasma-induced material degradation. However, Parker has also developed multiple formulations that display extremely low particle generation when most materials would be expected to suffer severe physical and chemical etch.

Solutions and Cost Savings

As an example: One major semiconductor fab had several factors (other than their seals) dictating the frequency of their preventative maintenance (PM) intervals. The fab wanted to replace their seals at these intervals as a precautionary measure to limit the chance of them becoming another PM-increasing factor. However, this caused these premium FFKM seals to be a source of inflated cost. Parker assisted with a process evaluation that resulted in over half the seals being replaced with cost-effective HiFluor O-rings, while the tool regions with more intense plasma exposure were reserved for the elite performance of Parker’s FF302.

Another major fab in the microelectronics industry switched from FKM to FFKM seals in their oxide etch process. The tool owner achieved the desired performance improvement, but soon began searching for less expensive options. The owner recognized the plasma resistance and low particulate generation of Parker’s HiFluor compound, HF355. After implementing this change, he retained the performance improvement, but at a fraction of the cost.

Semiconductor tool owners understand that their aggressive processes require the most robust, expensive FFKM seal materials. The price tag on these seals is greater than those from any other compound family. Fortunately, HiFluor is a proven sealing solution that can bridge the gap and provide the same kind of high performance at a much lower cost.


For more information about Parker O-Rings, including HiFluor, or to find a custom solutions for your application, contact Gallagher Fluid Seals today.

Parker’s Low Temperature FFKM Provides Critical Oil & Gas Sealing Solutions

Article re-posted with permission from Parker Hannifin Sealing & Shielding Team.

Original content can be found on Parker’s Website.


Oil & Gas Sealing Solutions with a Low Temperature FFKM

Technology advancements and new-to-world discoveries are constantly creating a new series of challenges for seal materials in the Oil and Gas industry. In today’s environments, seals are being pushed to perform in temperature, pressure and chemical extremes never before thought to be obtainable with rubber products. Application pressures exceeding 20,000 psi, service temperatures ranging from -40°F to upwards of 500°F, and exposure to some of the most aggressive media on the planet are placing immense amounts of stress on sealing elements. Parker’s FF400-80 compound has been formulated to provide a solution to all of these sealing challenges.

FF400-80 Compound – FFKM Product Features

  • Temperature range: -40° to 527°F
  • Best-in-Class low-temperature FFKM
  • Excellent compression set resistance
  • RGD resistant per ISO 23936-2 and TOTAL GS EP PVV 142
  • Sour service H2S resistant per ISO 23936-2
  • Maintained resilience at high pressures and low temperatures
  • Great for use in HTHP applications

Sounds great, but what’s the catch?

Continue reading Parker’s Low Temperature FFKM Provides Critical Oil & Gas Sealing Solutions

Kalrez® Parts Extend Service Life for Process Instrument

The Challenge

By switching from gasket seals of PTFE to custom gaskets of DuPont™ Kalrez® perfluoroelastomer parts in the sensor head of a process instrument refractometer used by the food, pulp and paper and chemical industries, process instrument manufacturer K-Patents Oy, Vantaa, Finland, was able to dramatically extend instrument service life, increase reliability and safety, and reduce costs for the company and its customers.

Instrument - Refractometer
Delicate digital detector circuits and fibre optics in the sensor head of K-Patents’“PR-01-S” process refractometer are sealed from attack by aggressive process media, temperatures from –20 ° to +220 °C, and pressures from –0,7 to +25 bar, by two DuPont™ Kalrez® gaskets situated either side of the vital Spinel prism

The Solution

Aggressive environment
Through permanent in-line fluids immersion, K-Patents’ “PR-01-S” refractometer is exposed to temperatures      from –20 ° to +220 °C, pressures from –0,7 to +25 bar, and some 500 process fluids and chemicals, many of which are extremely aggressive. Delicate digital detector circuits and fiber optics in the sensor head are sealed by two gaskets from attack by aggressive fluids. Because of inherent inelasticity, the original PTFE gaskets could not withstand the dynamic temperature fluctuations of many food, pulp and paper and chemical manufacturing processes, creating a leak path allowing process media to enter and damage the device. As a result, costly replacement of the PTFE seal became necessary approximately every 6–12 months.

Continue reading Kalrez® Parts Extend Service Life for Process Instrument

Parker ULTRA® FFKM for Semiconductor Applications

Article re-posted with permission from Parker Hannifin Sealing & Shielding Team.
Original content can be found on Parker’s Blog.


Semiconductor FFKM Offers Low Particle Generation AND Extreme Etch Resistance

Semiconductor Manufacturing - FF302In the world of semiconductor manufacturing, performance requirements are driving circuit sizes smaller and smaller, causing increased sensitivity to wafer defects. In parallel, the number of manufacturing steps has also increased driving a need for improved tool utilization and leaving more opportunity for these defects to be introduced. Identifying and eliminating the sources of defects is a tedious but necessary process to improve wafer yield.

What impact does seal contamination make?

One very distinct source of defects are the seals within a fab’s tool. Plasmas involved in both deposition, etch and cleaning processes utilize aggressive chemistries that put even high-functioning perfluorinated sealing compounds to the test. Much room for improvement has been left in this industry with many seal materials still posing significant threats to defectivity or downtime despite being designed for low particle generation or etch resistance.

How can Parker ULTRA change the industry?

Parker’s UltraTM FF302 Perfluorelastomer has proven success in CVD and etch applications, putting this material at the top of its class.  Typically, seal materials for semiconductor applications are optimized for low particulation or extreme etch resistance, however, Ultra FF302 provides both attributes in one material.  Laboratory testing shows Ultra FF302 has lower erosion in aggressive plasma chemistries even when compared to today’s leading elastomeric materials (Figure 1 below shows comparison erosion levels of various etch resistant perfluoroelastmers after exposure to Oplasma).

Continue reading Parker ULTRA® FFKM for Semiconductor Applications

Elastomer Seals for Instrumentation: Seal/Groove Design

Seal Design: Instrumentation IndustryGallagher recently released our High Performance Elastomer Seals for the Instrumentation Industry White Paper.  This was written by Russ Schnell, an Elastomer Consultant contracted by Gallagher Fluid Seals, and a former Senior Application Engineer with the Kalrez® perfluoroelastomer parts business at DuPont.  This white paper is now available for download on our Resources page.

Below is the third and final section of the white paper, which will discuss the importance of proper seal and groove design.


Proper Seal & Groove Design

Elastomer Seal: Perfluoroelastomer PartsProper seal design is a necessity for elastomer seals to perform reliably over the long term. Many of the instrument applications mentioned above use o-ring seals. The suggested compression for an elastomer o-ring seal to perform properly is typically a minimum of 16%, and a maximum of 30%. However, this range must also take into account the thermal expansion of an elastomer at elevated temperatures as well as any swell due to chemical exposure. Many of the elastomer seals used in instruments are small o-rings, which can create design issues. This is especially true for perfluoroelastomer parts which have a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Fluoroelastomers have a lower CTE, making seal design easier at elevated temperatures.

Continue reading Elastomer Seals for Instrumentation: Seal/Groove Design

Elastomer Seals for Instrumentation: Laboratory Equipment

Elastomer Seals for Instrumentation: Laboratory EquipmentGallagher recently released our High Performance Elastomer Seals for the Instrumentation Industry White Paper.  This was written by Russ Schnell, an Elastomer Consultant contracted by Gallagher Fluid Seals, and a former Senior Application Engineer with the Kalrez® perfluoroelastomer parts business at DuPont.  This white paper is now available for download on our Resources page.

Below is the second section of the white paper, diving into applications where the measurement is made in analytical laboratories which employ numerous solvents in a wide range of analyses and test equipment.


Laboratory Equipment

The final set of instrumentation is laboratory test equipment. As opposed to the laboratories in chemical plants, which often perform the same routine analyses on plant process streams, general analytical labs employ numerous solvents in a wide range of analyses and test equipment. As such, the ability of seals to resist a breadth of chemicals without degradation or leaching contaminants into a sample is of great importance. Although instrument seals are easily replaced in a laboratory environment, this operation still takes a technician time. It is always easier if the system can be flushed with a cleaning solvent and then be ready to run the next sample versus having to change out an elastomer seal due to incompatibility with a solvent.

Continue reading Elastomer Seals for Instrumentation: Laboratory Equipment